Skip to main content


  • Bladder outlet obstruction – a blockage at the base of the bladder
  • Catheter – a flexible tube inserted into the bladder, allowing urine to drain freely
  • Continence – the ability to control bladder and/or bowel
  • Detrusor – smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder
  • Dysuria – painful or difficult urination
  • Haematuria – blood in the urine
  • Incontinence – loss of bladder control
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) – two or more bladder infections in 6 months, or 3 or more bladder infections in a year
  • Sepsis – a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body’s response to an infection damages its own tissues
  • Sphincter – The muscle that keeps one continent in the normal state
  • Urethra – the tube that connects your bladder to the urethral opening (how urine exits the body)
  • Urinary retention – the inability to empty urine from the bladder (can vary in severity, such as acute onset where urgent medical help is recommended)
  • Vulval Vestibulodynia – chronic pain & discomfort in the area around the opening of the vagina & vulva
  • Vulvodynia – long-lasting pain in the vulva
  • Voiding dysfunction – the muscles that control the flow of urine, don’t relax completely, and the bladder never fully empties
  • Women – Those who are assigned female at birth (AFAB)